BY: SANIA FAROOQ
Smoking is basically the activity in which material is burned and the resultant smoke is inhaled into the body. Most frequently, cigarettes are used. The substance used in cigarette is usually the desiccated leaves of tobacco plant, which have been rolled into a rectangular shaped rice paper to generate a small round tube. Smoking is one of the most common forms of recreational drug use. The combustion of dehydrated plant leaves vaporizes and delivers active ingredients into the lungs where they are quickly absorbed into the bloodstream and reach bodily tissues. The evaporation of material creates heated aerosol and gas into a form that allows inhalation and deep penetration into the lungs and into the bloodstream. Some of the substances are classified as hard narcotics like heroine, but these drugs are very limited and are not commercially available.
Smoking is one of the common causes of preventable deaths globally and is the cause of 15 percent of all deaths. Studies show that male and female smokers lose an average of 13.2 and 14.5 years of life, respectively. The risk of dying from lung cancer before age 85 is 22.1 percent for a male smoker and 11.9 percent for female smoker, in the absence of competing causes of death.
Among the most common diseases that are caused by smoking are vascular stenosis, lung cancer, heart attacks and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Smoking is the risk factor strongly associated with toothloss.The effect of smoking on tissue depend upon the number of cigarettes smoked daily and the duration of the habit. Studies have found that smokers had greater odds for more severe dental bone loss compared to non-smokers, also people who smoke and drink alcohol heavily have much higher risk of developing oral cancer compared to people who do neither. Smoking can also affect the immune inflammatory processes which may increases the susceptibility to infections. In Pakistan, it is estimated that the prevalence of tobacco smoking is 36 percent for males and 9percent for females. Among young adults especially university students in Pakistan, the prevalence of smoking is 15 percent with the majority being male smokers. Approximately 1200 children start smoking every day. Pakistan is one of the 15 countries worldwide with a heavy burden of tobacco-related ill health. Pakistan has been a Party of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on tobacco control since 2005. As young people become adults, they are more likely to smoke if they misuse alcohol or drugs or live in poverty. Some of their friends encourage them to try cigarettes and to keep smoking. They see smoking a way of rebelling and showing independence. They think that everyone else is smoking and they should too. Most adults say that it helps them to cope with stress. The tobacco industry ad’s, price break, and the other promotions for its products are a big influencer in our society. The tobacco industry spends billions of dollars to show that smoking is exciting, glamorous and safe. For some people, quitting smoking is really difficult due to many reasons. Smoking is like a daily ritual for those people and need to be repeated on daily basis. Why is it harder to survive normally after quitting smoking; According to the Dr. ‘’Due to its effects on blood .retis flowing throughout the body, tour lungs will adjust and only hold what is needed to or used. Overtime, breathing will become more strenuous’’. In that cases psychology plays important role because the role that mind plays stand out to be very significant and this proves that that the major step in quitting smoking is having determined mind.