BY: Iqra Tariq & Sania Zubair(Riphah International University)

INTRODUCTION TO BIPOLAR DISORDER:
Bipolar disorder is a mind problem that causes changes in an individual’s mind-set, energy, and capacity to work. Individuals with bipolar disorder experience extreme emotional stress that normally happens during unmistakable times of days to weeks, called mind-set scenes HISTORY OF BIPOLAR DISORDER: Aerates of Cappadocia started the process in dealing with diseases in the medical field in the first century in Greece. He deals with one of two diseases like mania and depression. The ancient Greeks were accountable for the two terms like mania and melancholia which today is named as mania and depression. According to Greek and Romans lithium salts were used as treatment for mania and depression. Their view was that lithium salts relax the manic people and lift the spirits of depressed people.

STUDY OF BIPOLAR DISORDER IN 17 CENTURY:
Robert Burton in 17th century wrote the book called as “THE ANATOMY OF MELANCHOLY” that was basically for the people suffering from melancholy and they were treated using dances and music. It deeply explained the concept of which today is known as clinical depression. After this THEOPHILUS published the work called SEPULCRETUM. In his work he linked the two terms called mania and melancholy in a condition known as “manico-melancholicus.”

19th and 20th CENTURY DISCOVERIES in BIPOLAR DISORDER Kraplien was the first person to diagnose mental illness. His work called as MANIC DEPRESSIVE INSANITY AND PARANOI which briefly tells us about the difference between manic depressive and praecox which is now known as schizophrenia.

The historical backdrop of bipolar disorder changed with Emil Kraepelin, a German therapist who split away from Sigmund Freud’s hypothesis that society and the suppression of wants assumed an enormous part in psychological illness. Kraplien was the first person to diagnose mental illness. His work called as MANIC DEPRESSIVE INSANITY AND PARANOI which briefly tells us about the difference between manic depressive and praecox which is now known as schizophreniaَ.

COMPARISON RATIOS OF BIPOLAR DISORDERS IN MALE AND FEMALE

MALES:
• Beginning is normally prior in life than it is for females.
• Mania episodes are for the most part more normal and more extreme than they are for ladies.
• During hyper scenes, they might be more inclined to forceful practices
• Indications may happen less regularly than for ladies, yet symptoms are additionally commonly more serious in general.

FEMALES:
• Beginning ordinarily happens later than it accomplishes for males.
• Depressive episodes are more common than they are for men.
• They are bound to be misdiagnosed with depressive disorder.
• They are more inclined to going through bipolar disorders quickly.
• By and large, they are bound to have tension, PTSD, sleep deprivation, and other co-happening difficulties.

Types of bipolar disorder:
1) Bipolar 1
2) Bipolar2
3) Cyclothymiacs disorder
4) Substance/ medication-induced bipolar

1] BIPOLAR 1 AND BIPOLAR 2: Bipolar I and II have similar symptoms and patterns in which symptoms occur. However, people who have bipolar II will experience less severe manic episodes than people with bipolar
I. This type of mania is known as hypomania.

2] Cyclothymiacs disorder: Cyclothymiacs disorder, or cyclothymiacs, is a type of bipolar
disorder described by distinct episodes of hypomanic symptoms (raised mood and euphoria)
and depressive side effects over a time period of 2 years. The mood changes are not adequate in number, severity or term to meet the full rules for a hypomanic or depressive episode; however they are available in excess of 50% of the time and close to two months pass without symptoms.

3] Substance/ medication-induced bipolar: is analyzed when a substance (alcohol, drugs or
endorsed medicine) causes hyper / hypomanic and depressive symptoms indications while an individual is
utilizing the substance or during a withdrawal disorder related with the substance.
4] BIPOLAR RELATED DISORDER:
A. A prominent and persistent period of abnormally elevated, expansive or irritable mood and abnormally
increased activity or energy that predominates in the clinical picture.
B. There is evidence from the history, physical examination or laboratory finding that the disturbance is
the direct path physiological consequences of another medical condition.
C. The disturbance is not better explained by another mental disorder.
D. The disturbance doesn’t occur exclusively during the course of delirium.
E. The disturbance causes clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational or other
important areas of functioning or necessitates hospitalized to prevent harm to self or others or there
are psychotic features.
CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF BIPOLAR DISORDER:
CAUSES: Bipolar disorder seems to result from a mix of variables.
Genetic variables: Bipolar disorder is more normal in the individuals who have a relative with the
condition. Various hereditary highlights might be included.
Natural characteristics: Researches have shown that imbalances in neurotransmitters and hormones
cause this disorder to rise at its peak…
Environmental components: Life occasions, like maltreatment, mental pressure, a “huge misfortune,” or
another awful accident, may trigger an underlying scene in a defenseless individual.
EFFECTS OF BIPOLAR DISORDER:
1] ON CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM:
• Heart palpitations
• Quick pulse
• An expanded heart beat
2] ON CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM:
• Sadness
• Feeling of guilt
• forgetfulness

3] ON SKELETAL MUSCLES:
Bipolar disorder doesn’t straightforwardly influence the bones and muscles, however on the off
chance that we can experience depression scenes; these can influence our skeletal and solid
frameworks.
4] ON GASTROINTESTINAL SYSTEM:
• Abdominal pain
• Sickness
• vomiting
5] ON ENDOCRINE SYSTEM: Bipolar disorder can make changes our drive. Mania may
put your sex drive on over-burden, while wretchedness can fundamentally diminish it.
TREATMENT OF BIPOLAR DISORDER:
HEALTHY ROUTINE:
• Eat dinners and snacks at set occasions for the duration of the day.
• Increment our intake of vegetables, lean proteins, and entire grains.
• Get seven to nine hours of rest every evening.
STRUCTURING THE DAY: When scheduling our day by day daily task, be certain to save sufficient
time for resting and relaxing. Being too busy at work can intensify depressive symptoms and cause
dissatisfaction.
AVOID FOR BEING ISOLATED FROM EVERYONE: At the point when you’re depressed, social
circumstances can appear to be overpowering. We may want to be distant from everyone else, except
it’s significant not to disconnect yourself. Being separated from everyone else can expand the
symptoms of depression.
USING DRUGS:
• Mood stabilizers, like lithium
• antidepressants
• second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs)
PSYCHOTHERAPY:
Through COGNITIVE BEHAVIOUR THERAPY (CBT) and different methodologies, the individual can
figure out how to:
• perceive and find ways to oversee key triggers, like stress
• recognize early manifestations of a scene and find ways to oversee it
• work on factors that help keep a steady mind-set for as far as might be feasible
• connect with the assistance of relatives, educators, and associate.